On August 24 Gorbachev resigned as general secretary of the Communist Party. Gorbachev made no direct reference to the so-called Brezhnev Doctrineunder which Moscow had asserted the right to use force to prevent a Warsaw Pact member from leaving the Communist fold.
Gorbachev returned to Moscow, but his leadership had been severely discredited by the crisis. The reunification of Germany further accelerated the demise of the Communist governments.
Yugoslavia is a different case from other E. Thomas Masaryk was President of Czechoslovakia in The German police beat up demonstrators in Dresden, but a bloodbath was averted in Leipzig either by the intervention of some local communist leaders, or more likely, by a phone call from Egon Krentz, member of the Politburo.
The Case of Poland, Princeton, N. Uprisings in both Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia were quickly quelled but one of the most significant uprisings occurred in East Germany. Gorbachev urged his Central and Southeast European counterparts to imitate perestroika and glasnost in their own countries.