Terms related to research paper

Research terms pdf

Census The collection of data from all members, instead of a sample, of the target population. For example, annual snow fall and the Yankee's season record are independent, but annual snow fall and coat sales are not independent. Statistical Significance -- the probability that the difference between the outcomes of the control and experimental group are great enough that it is unlikely due solely to chance. Models with similar explanatory power, but more degrees of freedom are generally preferred because they offer a simpler explanation. It is predicted by the independent variable, and it predicts the dependent variable. Confidence Interval A range of estimated values that is the best guess as to the true population's value. They decide ahead of time how much error in their prediction is acceptable. The probability that the null hypothesis can be rejected at a predetermined significance level [0. If, early in the research process, you define precisely what you intend by words and phrases crucial to your project, a you help identify appropriate methods of gathering and interpreting data and b your advisors can judge at the outset how well they agree with your definitions, thereby saving you possible trouble during subsequent stages of your project. There are many more such factors that can contribute to measurement error. This creates a finite number of new samples or repetitions. Measures of Association Statistics that measure the strength and nature of the relationship between variables. Field Work Observing human behavior or interviewing individuals within their own communities. Beliefs -- ideas, doctrines, tenets, etc.

Ceiling The highest limit of performance that can be assessed or measured by an instrument or process. Estimate of the treatment effect is generally conservative, because the outcomes of those who did not receive the treatment or the full treatment are generally smaller.

Control The processes of making research conditions uniform or constant, so as to isolate the effect of the experimental condition. Game Theory Game theory is the study of how and why people make decisions using mathematical models of conflict and cooperation.

Multi-Stage Sampling. The basic concept is the reduction of large amounts of data down to the meaningful parts.

Research terminology simplified pdf

To graph a distribution, first the values of the variables are listed across the bottom of the graph. Covariate Balance In randomized experiments, randomization creates covariate balance between the treatment or treatment and control groups. Additional verbal information is collected to evaluate whether respondents understand a question or series of questions, if the response categories are appropriate and if the question is measuring the construct it was designed to measure. It includes steps of procedure, application of techniques, systems of reasoning or analysis, and the modes of inquiry employed by a discipline. In educational research, random assignment is often done at the classroom or school level to avoid such contamination. Policy -- governing principles that serve as guidelines or rules for decision making and action in a given area. Experimental Group In experimental research, the group of subjects who receive the experimental treatment or intervention under investigation. This might include: working with school and program staff to select samples of classes and children; conducting in-person interviews with teachers and other program staff and children's parents; and administering standardized assessments to the children. ANOVA is used to examine whether there are statistical differences in the group means for a single continuous dependent variable. For example, a graph of the distribution of women's heights from a random sample of the population would be shaped like a bell. The term is also used more broadly to describe the tasks performed by members of a research team in schools, early childhood programs, and communities. Cluster sampling is often used in education and early childhood research. Interpreting the average of a bimodal distribution is problematic because the data are not normally distributed.

They are most often used when describing and comparing the percentages of different groups with a specific characteristic. It refers to the treatment of information that a participant has disclosed to the researcher in a relationship of trust and with the expectation that it will not be revealed to others in ways that violate the original consent agreement, unless permission is granted by the participant.

Statistical terms used in research

Variables are positively correlated if they both tend to increase at the same time. One way that researchers address this is by including interaction terms for the independent variables in their models. White Paper -- an authoritative report that often states the position or philosophy about a social, political, or other subject, or a general explanation of an architecture, framework, or product technology written by a group of researchers. Peer-Review -- the process in which the author of a book, article, or other type of publication submits his or her work to experts in the field for critical evaluation, usually prior to publication. The goal is to provide greater breath and depth of understanding of a topic. Aggregate -- a total created from smaller units. It is a way of reducing the number of items to be used in an analysis to a smaller and more meaningful set. Margin of Error -- the permittable or acceptable deviation from the target or a specific value. However, there are some pitfalls with using keywords, so the following is a quick guide on how to carefully choose keywords and what mistakes to avoid. However, acculturation also implies that both cultures add something to one another, but still remain distinct groups unto themselves. Gini Coefficient A measure of inequality or dispersion in a group of values e. Estimate of the treatment effect is generally conservative, because the outcomes of those who did not receive the treatment or the full treatment are generally smaller. Ethnography is primarily based upon participant observation, direct observation, and in-depth interviewing. Continuous Variable A variable that, in theory, can take on any value within a range. The process of assigning values to behaviors observed in parent-child interactions and assigning numeric values to responses to open-ended survey questions are examples of coding.

Individuals who perform near to or below this lower limit are said to have reached the floor, and the assessment may not be providing a valid estimate of their performance levels. This is distinct from a "main effect," which is the effect of a single explanatory variable on the dependent variable.

Metropolitan Statistical Areas MSAs are often used to geographically understand labor markets because individuals often look for work outside of the city or county in which they live.

One way that researchers address this is by including interaction terms for the independent variables in their models.

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For example, if survey respondents are ages 21, 33, 33, 45, and 76, the modal age is The findings from these studies provide important information that can be used to develop theories about the conditions under which the treatment is effective or ineffective.

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Research paper, Dissertation and Thesis Writing